A brief on Khartoum State
Location and Human Activity in Khartoum State
- Khartoum State lies at the junction of the two rivers, the White and the Blue Niles in the North Eastern part of central Sudan. It lies between latitude 15-16 N and longitude 21-24 East with a length of 250 k and a total area of 20,736 km2.
- Most of Khartoum State falls within the semi-desert climatic zone while the Northern part of it falls within the desert climatic zone. The state is prevailed with a hot to very hot climate with rainy season during the summer and warm to cold dry winter. Rain fall ranges between 100-200 mm at the North Eastern parts to 200-300 mm at the Southern parts with 10-100 mm at the North Western parts.
- Temperature in summer ranges between 25-40 OC during the months of April to June and between 20-35 OC during July-October Period. Temperature degrees continue to fall during the winter period between November-March to the level of 15-25 OC.
Geographically Khartoum State is divided into three clusters
- First Cluster: starts from Almogran area (where the While and Blue Niles meet) and extends between the two rivers to the South till the boarder of Algazira State. This cluster is administratively subdivided into two localities, namely, Khartoum and Jabel Awleya Localities. This cluster is characterized by the presence of Sundos and Soba agricultural schemes besides a number of animal production schemes (dairy, poultry and fish production) and fruits, vegetables and fodder farms.
- Second Cluster: This is the Northern cluster that lies between the Blue Nile and the River Nile. This includes Khartoum North and Nile East Localities. Within this, Khartoum North is considered the largest town. There are many agricultural schemes within this cluster e.g. East Soba Agricultural Scheme, Alselait Agricultural Scheme besides the largest dairy production scheme within the State which is Kuku Dairy Production Scheme as well as the largest industrial area in Sudan.
- The Third Cluster: This lies to the Western side of the White Nile and River Nile. It includes three localities, namely, Omdurman, Um Bada and Karari. Omdurman is considered the largest town in this cluster and known as the Historical Capital of Sudan. Its establishment era goes back to before the Mahadi Revolution. It contains many historical and archeological areas besides popular market areas. Western Omdurman area is considered one of the most outstanding natural game areas within the state.
If we need to give specific details on the tribes living in Khartoum State, we find the peripheries of towns and rural areas inhibited by specific tribes. Like, within Omdurman and the Southern rural part we find Aljamoya tribe besides some of Kordofan tribes that were displaced due to the drought and desertification that hit their original places during the previous years (the beginning and mid-eighties). Here we find Alkababeesh and Alkawahla tribes. In the Northern rural part of Karari Locality we find Alshihainat tribe. In the Northern part of Khartoum North we find Alabdalab and Albataheen tribes while in East Nile Locality we find Alshukria, Albataheen and Alkawahla. We find Alisailat tribes inhabiting Um Dawan Ban area.
According to the latest census (the fifth) carried in 2008, around 8 millions inhibit Khartoum State representing the entire political, social and cultural spectrum in Sudan. These are distributed in 7 Localities. An estimate of around one third of the total population of the state has migrated from other states in Sudan. This lead to the fact that the Khartoum state contains all ethnic groups of Sudan and a population intensity that is almost one quarter of the country’s population formed of a mixture of all Sudan tribes.
As for their human activities, we can say that most of Khartoum State population is workers and officers at the public and private sectors or at the banks. There is also a large segment of capital owners that works in trade and another segment of entrepreneurs and displaced persons that works in marginal activities. As for rural areas population, most work in agricultural and animal production activities and these provide the state with supplies of vegetable, fruits and dairy products. Those living along the Nile banks make pottery and red bricks or work as fishermen.