Khartoum State Police
The sociologists have pointed out that the establishment of police has been dictated by the human development when it reached a stage where disputes and disagreement between people on their desires and interests started to appear. It was necessary then to development an authority that can settle disputes and prevent unlawful possession of the others’ property. The era when the Ottoman Empire, which is known as the Turkish period, controlled the Sudan witnessed the formation of a force known as ‘The Basha or Governor’s Men’. This resembled police and they were tasked with the collection of taxes, monitoring roads and rivers and were responsible for peace and order keeping. It used to be under the direct supervision of the governor. The style of their work was primitive and described as harsh and merciless. It left a very negative memory in the citizens’ minds. During the Mahadi’s era the Jehadi army undertook the task of maintaining security in the country and issuing circulars that are similar to laws.
The period of the Angelo-Egyptian rule arrived and three authorities were developed. These are administrative, financial and judiciary with each having a head at the governorates level reporting to the director at Khartoum. This weakened the decentralization. Despite the significant development of the security forces it failed to deliver its responsibilities because it relied on army officers who were not familiar with the criminal and procedural laws and the citizens were not aware enough. In 1905 the security forces were reassigned to be under the Directors of the governorates with a limited police force at the capital headquarters.
In 1910 Mr. J. H. Berg, an expert in groups organization, was appointed to be responsible for the Khartoum police. He started by organizing Omdurman police. With the success he achieved, the system was applied in all governorates of Sudan in 1913. This was the real start of the nucleus for the Sudan police force. Its headquarters was at Chamber of the Administrative Secretary. The general structure of the police force management was central in terms of training, equipment with arms, and the style of work and decentralized in terms of recruitment and selection.
After the independence the police force was back to centralization and a director was appointed at Khartoum. A headquarter for the police was established at the ministry of interior. This has a full control over the governorates police forces and hence the police became a unified force in all Sudan with headquarters at Khartoum.
Historical stages of administrative development of Khartoum Police 1952-1983
Called Khartoum Province and was headed by the Provincial Commandant. It has three police stations namely, Khartoum Police Station, Omdurman Police Station and Khartoum North and Rural Areas Police Station. Each station was headed by a ‘Hakimdar’ which is equivalent to Lt. Colonel. This was upgraded to Assistant Director General with three Commandants.
National Capital Commission which is subdivided into three areas, Between the Two Niles Area, Nile Eastern Area and Nile Western Area. The Khartoum Commission is headed by the Director of National Capital Police and Area Directors. The areas were divided into Sections.
After the issuing of the Fourth Constitutional Decree on establishment of Federal Government, Khartoum became one of the States and it has seven provinces. The name was changed accordingly to the Director of State Police and the headquarters of seven provinces police and the headquarters of Localities (35 in total) were established. The Khartoum State Police was restructured accordingly.
Khartoum State, the capital of the country, lies at the North Eastern part of the central part of Sudan. It extends between Latitudes 16 North and 15 South and between Longitudes 21 East and 24 West. It has a semi-desert climate which is worm dry with an average rainfall of 150mm. Its total area is 20,736 km2.
Khartoum State is considered one of the most attractive areas for Sudan people being the national capital of the country and the political center. It has a population of around 8 millions making around 30% of the total population of the country. Its inhabitants are considered the most active countrywide as around 80% of the population is actively participating in the various economical and services sectors. It is considered a center for attraction for industry, services and job opportunities which necessitates the provision of essential services as health, education, security and social welfare. It is characterized by the presence of a strong infrastructural base and a protracted construction mass that is continually developing. It is also noted for the extensive presence of government service buildings, sovereignty and federal institutions, parties’ places, diplomatic missions and industrial areas.
Objectives of State Police
The police force is one of the service organs of the country that the constitution has a general demarcation for its responsibilities, jurisdiction and job description. The general laws and professional ones were developed to provide details of its role, responsibilities and objectives that the police should strive to fulfill in its various areas. The States Police, including that of Khartoum State, are to achieve the following objectives:
- Develop, instate and propagate good values, preservation of community culture and manners, and protection of constitution and the high interests of the country.
- Ensure the security of the country and citizens, safeguarding properties and national economy, application of related laws and regulations, and combating crimes.
To attend to these objectives and responsibilities as required, it is necessary to develop organizational plans that put in place a comprehensive system for the police activities and the required support and supplies. The parts of this system should be correctly placed with well defined roles within the general organizational structure of the police. For this, the ministry of interior put a high importance on the development of the organizational structures of the police forces. A total of seven ministerial decrees were issued during the past period all leading to amendments in the organizational structure. There are Ministerial Decrees No. 5 of 1992, No. 71 of 1993, No. 73 of 1995, No. 152 of 1997, No. 125 of 198, No. 128 of 2000 and No. 225 of 2001. Based on the decree No. 225 which is on the organizational structure of the police force, a study and a review of the organizational structure of the Khartoum State Police was prepared.
Roles and responsibilities of State Police:
- Development of general policies and administrative, security and criminal investigation plans for the professional and administrative work of the police within the specified jurisdictions.
- Full participation in the state security committee or any other committee that relates to the police work.
- Coordination on security with neighboring states and safeguarding vital establishments within the state.
- Development of security plans for the state and important towns and supervision of the implementation of these.
- Implementation of the plans for the use of police forces by the state government and strict follow up of the state government policies in a manner that does not counter act on the general security of the country and the good management of the forces.
- Administrative supervision on the specialized police forces and those belonging to the general directorates in coordination with the directors of general directorates.
- Supervision on emergency forces and recommendation on its movement within the state’s jurisdiction.
- Coordination with the executive organ of the state on issues related to the police affairs.
- Issues related to training of the police force and nomination of officers for training opportunities.
- Organization of regular and ad hoc workshops and seminars for improving performance.
- Formation of Police Leadership Authority which includes the directors of specialized directorates and those of the General Affairs and Criminal Investigations Directorate besides the Localities directors. This authority develops the general policies for the state police.